Cranfield University and VU University of Amsterdam researchers carried out research on equity effects of a carbon charge on car commuters for reducing CO2 emissions around Manchester Airport. The study used staff Survey data from 2008-2010 to analyse consumer welfare change considering choice of travel mode, CO2 emissions reduction, and carbon charge revenue and distribution; estimate individual carbon footprint of airport commuters; investigate the impact of carbon charge on travel behaviour; and assess the net effect of the carbon charge. Results indicated that placing a carbon charge on commuters can directly alter travel mode behaviour.